Monday, 17 December 2012

Dudjom Reincarnation- Nyingma Head

Left- Bhutan Dudjom Yangsey, Right-Tibet Dudjom Yangsey Rinpoche

Two boys have been recognised as the Yangsi of   Dudjom Rinpoche, Jigdral Yeshe Dorje.  Multiple rebirths of great lamas are not all that unusual and surprising. Reincarnation of high Lamas will have more than three, for benefits of sentient beings. Such as (Ku, sung, thug, yonten and Thinley), as like Khentse Wangpo popularly known as Khentse Denga, and pedling trulsum in Bhutan, reincarnation of Terton Pema Lingpa.

Tibet Dudjom Yangsi Rinpoche Sangyay Pema Zhepa was born in the Iron Horse Year of the 17th Rabjung Cycle (1990) in Kyegudo (Yuesue County of Qinghai Province in China) to Kyabje Dudjom Rinpoche's own son, Dola Tulku Jigmed Chokyi Nyima Rinpoche, and his wife Pema Khandro. Following many auspicious signs including rainbows and there was much speculation as to who this child might be the rebirth of even before he was born. It was the terton and wisdom dakini, Tare Khandro (Tare Lhamo), the daughter of another great terton in Golok, Aphang Terton who first recognised him as the tulku of HH Dudjom Rinpoche. Ven. Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche III came to see Yangsi Rinpoche in Kyegudo and gave him the name "Pema Osel" (Lotus Light).  While Dzongshar Rinpoche performed important initiations for Dudjom Yangsi Rinpoche, three layers of rainbows appeared above the roof of the house. After receiving a letter from Tare Khandro, His Holiness Chatral Sangye Dorje Rinpoche said he believed the child to be the Dudjom tulku and wrote to HH Dudjom Rinpoche’s eldest son, HH Dungse Thinley Norbu Rinpoche who agreed with his view and visited the young tulku in Chengdu, Sichuan to meet Yangsi Rinpoche in 1993.

Amongst other senior lamas, H.H. Minling Trichen Rinpoche, H.H. Penor Rinpoche (the present Head of the Nyingma School), H.H. Sakya Trizin Rinpoche, Shechen Rabjam Rinpoche and Kathok Situ Rinpoche have all recognised Kyabje Dudjom Yangsi Rinpoche.

On 25th November, 1994, the day of Lha Bab Duchen (the day that celebrates Buddha Shakyamuni descending from heaven after giving teachings to His mother) in Kathmandu, Nepal, Yangsi Rinpoche was enthroned. Many thousands of people gathered for the ceremony at Godavari, the holy place of Vajrayogini. HH Kyabje Chatral Rinpoche presided over the eight-hour enthronement ceremony, with H.H. Penor Rinpoche, Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche, Shechen Rabjam Rinpoche, Kathok Situ Rinpoche and many other Nyingma lamas present. Kyabje Dudjom Yangsi Rinpoche sat as still as a statue for the entire length of the ceremony. Kyabje Chatral Rinpoche commented to Yangsi Rinpoche's father Dola Rinpoche that it was amazing, even miraculous, that a 4-year-old boy could do that while Chatral Rinpoche himself could not do that.

Yangsi Rinpoche's teachers include Ven. Bhakha Tulku Rinpoche, Ven. Urgyen Chemchok Rinpoche and Khenpo Nyima Dorje from Kathok Monastery. He has also received many important initiations and teachings from such great masters as Kathok Moktsa, Gonjo Tulku Urgyen Chemchok, Dungse Thinley Norbu Rinpoche, Dzongsar Jamyang Khysentse Rinpoche, and from HH Chatral Rinpoche, his Tsawai Lama.

Bhutan Dudjom Yangsi, Tenzin Yeshe Dorje was born by caesarean section on 9th October 1990.  His father is Kesang Dadul, the son of Dasho Drongong, a descendant of Nyo lineage of Bumthang. His mothers Sonam Chokyi, daughter of Colonel Penjo Ongdi and Choden. Choden is the daughter of the mayor of Kyengkar who too was from the Nyo lineage.  Sonam Chokyi feels a strong connection with H.H Dudjom Rinpoche, Jigdral Yeshe Dorje and it is recounted that following a dream she had, Dudjom Rinpoche interpreted it to mean that Guru Rinpoche himself had directly blessed her.  Messengers came to her in dreams and told her that she was bearing the Tulku of Dudjom Rinpoche and these coincided with dreams and signs experienced by Sangyum Kusho, H.H Dudjom Rinpoche’s first wife.  These were further supported by a prediction letter given to Sangyum Kusho by Rinpoche while was still alive. Thus it was that when Sangyum Kusho learned that Sonam Chokyi, whose name corresponded to His Holiness' prediction letter, had an extraordinary son, it seemed that all auspicious conditions for finding the genuine incarnation had spontaneously appeared.  But even though Sangyum Kusho felt in her heart that Tenzin Yeshe Dorje was His Holiness’ Tulku, there were other remarkable children at the time, so she collected information on five and sent them to HH the Dalai Lama requesting his guidance.  A month later, the Dalai Lama gave his decision, saying that since the recognition was of utmost importance to the Nyingma tradition, he had made very careful divinations which pointed to Shonnu Senge and to the names of his parents as well. Following this, His Holiness issued a detailed letter recognizing Shonnu Senge, which was his birth name, as the incarnation of His Holiness Dudjom Rinpoche. The Gomchen Draktsang of the Kudung temple performed the long life ritual of the Chime Sogtik for the Tulku, at his residence in Nepal; this occurred on the fourth day of the sixth month of the Water Monkey Year. The enthronement ceremony was conducted by Late HH Trulzhig Rinpoche, fifth head of Nyingma lineage with Dudjom Dungsey Shenphen Dawa Rinpoche. At this time, Sangyum Kusho offered a golden robe, a white scarf and a lotus hat to the new incarnation. When the child was ceremoniously placed on his golden throne, many disciples of HH Dudjom Rinpoche were present including many tulkus, lamas and sangha members from India, Tibet, Sikkim, Bhutan and Nepal as well as Western disciples from France, America, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore, altogether three hundred representatives from fifteen countries.

In March 1993, His Holiness the Dalai Lama called Shonnu Senge to Sikkim to receive his official name, Tenzin Yeshe Dorje. Thousands of followers travelled to see him as word of the young incarnation spread among the devotees. En route to Sikkim, the Tulku stopped at Zangtok Pelri, his own Gompa situated on a mountain top in Kalimpong. This was the first monastery built by His Holiness after his departure from Tibet in 1954. The construction of this Gompa was carefully guided by His Holiness, who had precious statues brought from Tibet that were placed there. Enthronement Ceremony of His Holiness Dudjom Tenzin Yeshe Dorjee In a ceremony spanning three days, September 30 to October 2, 1993, thousands congregated from around the world to witness the auspicious enthronement ceremony of His Holiness Dudjom Tenzin Yeshe Dorjee at Orgyen Dorngak Choling Gompa, Boudhanath, Nepal. His Holiness left his residence for his monastery in an open jeep decorated with colourful scarves and shaded by a symbolic umbrella born by two lamas. At Chabahil, His Holiness' motorcade was swamped by crowds lining the route to the monastery. His holiness was then escorted from the road to the monastery by lamas and monks in a traditional ceremony. The ceremony was conducted by HH Dzarong Trulshik Rinpoche in the sanctified hall of the Kudung Chorten of His Late Holiness. The main ceremony inside the monastery was attended by His Holiness' family, Dudjom Sangyum Kusho and family, and high Nyingma Lamas from other lineages, including His Holiness Drubchen Rinpoche. Guru Lau was present leading followers from Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore and Malaysia. All offered Kusum Mendel to His Holiness. At the ceremony, the host country was represented by the Prime Girija Prasad Koirala; the King of Bhutan by the Lord Chamberlain Dasho Gyalpo Zimpon; His Holiness the Dalai Lama by his religious chief secretary; the Monastic Order of Bhutan by His Excellencies Tulku Jigmi Choida and Tse-Ngon Lopon. Due to the special circumstances of the occasion, His Holiness had to sit on his throne in a crowded hall for up to six hourly stretches, giving blessings to thousands each day. His Holiness, though barely three years old, was patient and performed his duties faultlessly. All who witnessed His Holiness skilful competence were deeply moved. Yangsi Rinpoche had kept many miracles of hand and foot prints during special occasion, where we can see today.

His Holiness returned to Bhutan in November 1993. His Late Holiness Dudjom Rinpoche had a very special relationship with Bhutan. His Holiness made a special visit to Tango Chen monasteries to meet H.H. Je Kinley, who had received many transmissions and empowerments from His Holiness Dudjom Rinpoche. For both, it was a touching moment. H.H. Je Khenpo invited His Holiness Dudjom Rinpoche to his winter retreat in Punakha, where His Holiness was received by the government officials and lay and monastic devotees.
In May 1994, His Holiness and entourage once again ventured forth into Bhutan for the pilgrimage to the picturesque valley of Sinye Dzong. His Holiness had to traverse through much of Eastern Bhutan being warmly welcomed wherever he went.
Dudjom Rinpoche resides and studies at Dudjom Namdrol Choling across the valley from the Yanglashoed cave in Parphing, Kathmandu, and at his main residence in Sartsham Chorten, opposite Takshang Monastery, Paro, Bhutan, where he has founded a gomdey, or study and practice centre for lay practitioners. Rinpoche also heads and oversees the activities of the Nyimalung Monastery Dratsang in Bumthang and Gelephu, Bhutan. He was appointed as the monastery’s head abbot, or spiritual director, in 2005 by Bhutan Govenrment.
In the last few years, Rinpoche has performed many drubchens (multi-day ceremonies) and conferred initiations at various monasteries in Bhutan and India, and has presided annually at the Ngagyur Nyingma Menlam Chenmo world peace prayers at Bodhgaya, India.
He has received all the major initiations of the Nyingma kama and terma teachings from several lineage holders, particularly the late Kyabje Trulshik Ngawang Chokyi Lodro Rinpoche. Other lineage holders from whom Rinpoche has also received initiations and teachings include H.H. the Dalai Lama, the late Penor Rinpoche, Dodrubchen Rinpoche, Taklung Tsetrul Rinpoche, Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche, Shechen Rabjam Rinpoche, Namkhai Nyingpo Rinpoche and the late Lhalung Thugsey Rinpoche.
Both Yangsis appear to have inspired by all who have come close to them with their authenticity from high lamas to the general public. And respected equally everywhere in this dharma world.

Sunday, 14 October 2012

Drukpa Kagyu order of Bhudhism in Bhutan

Lord Marpa- Father of Kagyu order of Buddhism

     Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism 

The Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism traces its origin back to Buddha Shakyamuni. The most important source for the specific practices that characterize the Kagyu order is the great Indian yogi Tilopa (988-1069), one of the 84 mahasiddhas of India, who first developed the spontaneous insight of enlightened realization. He gained this realization through the methods that were taught by the historical Buddha Shakyamuni to his closest students, methods that continued to be practiced during the time of Tilopa. In turn, the realization of these masters was passed down to their disciples through the great forefathers of the lineage: Indian mahasiddha Naropa, Marpa-the great translator, Milarepa-the greatest yogi of Tibet, and then to Gampopa-whose coming was prophesied by the Buddha. The lineage of the Kagyu emphasizes the continuity of oral instructions passed on from master to student, from whence the name "Kagyu" derives. In addition to that, the lineage relies on many hundreds of volumes from the Kagyu masters, starting with the Indian mahasiddhas, Tilopa, Naropa, as well as from the Tibetan yogis, Marpa, Milarepa, Gampopa, the Karmapas, and other great masters of all the kagyu lineages. Some of the most distinguished works of the Kagyu Tibetan masters are the works of Marpa, the Vajra Songs Of Milarepa, the Collected Works of Gampopa, of the Karmapas, of Drikhung Kyöppa Jigten Sumgön, and of Drukpa Kunkhyen Pema Karpo, and the works of many other masters too numerous to be counted. The Karmapas played a very important role in the preservation of the lineage through contributing to the Kagyu lineage scriptures.  Later in 19th century master, Jamgon Kongtrul the Great (1813-1899) compiled the "Treasury of the Kagyu Mantraya," which became one of the main sources of instructions, tantric empowerments, and sadhanas for the Kagyu lineage. The Kagyu lineage practices the quintessential points of both sutra and tantra teachings, with a special focus on the tantric teachings of the Vajrayana and Mahamudra teachings. In this tradition, there are two major paths: (1) the path of skilful means and (2) the path of liberation.

The Four Main Schools

(1) The Phaktru ('phag gru) Kagyu  (2) The Kamtsang (kam tshang) or Karma (kar ma) Kagyu (3) The Tsalpa (tshal pa) Kagyu and  (4) The Barom ('ba' rom) Kagyu

Eight Additional Schools:

Drikhung, Drukpa, Taklung,  Yasang, Trophu,  Shuksep ,Yelpa  and Martsang

Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyal Rinpoche-Bhutan

Zhabdrung was born in Tibet in 1594 into a princely family of Gya who ruled the Drukpa Kaygupa school. He was born at the monastery of Gardong in U province. His grandfather, Mipham Choegyal, was then the prince abbot at Ralung monastery. From an early age, Shabdrung was groomed to succeed his grandfather to the throne. He studied religion and art, becoming skilled in the art of painting and sculpting. He became the 18th prince abbot of Ralung at the age of 12 years after the death of his grandfather.

The event that changed his life was his identification as the incarnation of the great Drukpa scholar, Kuenkhen Pema Karpo, who himself was the reincarnation of the founder of the Drukpa Kagyud school, Tsangpa Gyarey Yeshey Dorjee. The reincarnation was challenged by another contender, Pagsam Wangpo who was the son of powerful principality in Tibet. He also claimed to be the reincarnation of Pema Karpo and was installed in Pema Karpo's monastery as the incarnate with the support of the ruler of Tsang province. This became increasingly difficult for Shabdrung and he decided to come to Bhutan in 1616 where he had so many disciples.
Thirty years after his arrival from Tibet, Shabdrung had unified most parts of Bhutan under his rule, and had subdued and united the other religious schools. He repelled the repeated Tibetan invasions and built fortress in each valley of the country thus establishing firm political and religious control over the region. These fortresses, which still exist today, are a unique feature of our country. The Shabdrung also gave the country a unique national identity in form of social and cultural life which greatly contributed towards protection of Bhutan's sovereignty over the centuries. An outstanding and valiant saint soldier, a statesman with foresight, a great scholar and a great builder, Shabdrung is rightly regarded as the architect of a unified nation state of Bhutan.

ZHABDRUNG NGAWANG NAMGYEL- Great figure of Bhutan and role played for the country!!

Zhabdrung Rinpoche meaning "the precious jewel at whose feet on submits", as he is reverently referred to, was not only a great spiritual personality but also a statesman and leader of exceptional ability. He not only successfully crushed several foreign invasions, but in the process, being a great architect and builder, set up a chain of sturdy monastery fortresses called dzongs which became the canters of religious and civil authority. He brought peace, security and stability to the country by establishing a strong and dynamic administrative system and by codifying a set of strict but fair and just laws of such enduring values based on the Buddhist tradition that they have formed the framework for the present judicial system of Bhutan. He promulgated the Dharma and perpetuated the Buddhist order by establishing the sangha community which to this day plays a very important role in the country. Indeed, the traditions. Customs and culture of present-day Bhutan all carry the mark and influence of Zhabdrung Rinpoche who is truly considered by all the people to be the founder and father of the Bhutanese nation.

The Dual system of administration which Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyel established, whereby a spiritual leader looked after the clergy and a temporal ruler looked after the affairs of the state, endured till the establishment of hereditary monarchy in 1907.

Although numerous scholar-saints and  sages of different traditions of Buddhism appeared in Bhutan from the 9th to the 16th centuries A.D. and established many monasteries throughout the country, the first Sangha was instituted by Zhabdrung Rinpoche with only 30monks in 1620 A.D. when the completed the first monastic centre at Chari dorjidan about 14 kilometres north of Thimphu, the present capital of Bhutan, under the chief abbotship of Khenchen Pekar Jungne (the first Je Khempo i. e. Sangharaja). On completion of the Punakha Dzong in 1637, the Sangha Community with 6oo monks was shifted to Punakha which continues till now to be the winter residence of the Central Monastic Body to this day, while Thimphu is their summer residence. Subsequently the number of monks increased as and when Dzongs were completed in other parts of the country.

In order to keep the Drukpa Kargyupa tradition of Buddhist intact for posterity Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyel appointed the following disciples in different fields:

1) the great Arhat (Neten Chenpo) Pekar Jungne.
2) the great Bhikshu (Gelong Chenpo) Dechen Lhundrub.
3) the great Siddha (Drubthob Chenpo) Jinpa Gyaltshen, and
4) the great renouncer (Jatang Chenpo) Pekar Tashi.

While the above four are the chief upholders of the lineage, the following are the sons of the upholders of the Orders (Ringlug):

1) the Kasoel Dzinpa (upholder of oral tradition)- Damchoe Gyaltshen.
2) the Dongyu Dzinpa (upholder of the tantric meaning) sonam Odzer.
3) the Domgyu Dzinpa (Upholder of the continuity of pratimoksha) sakya Odzer, and
4) The Chagsoel Dzinpa (upholder of the Law)- Thinley Drukgyel.

The Bhutanese call their country Druk Yul (Land of the Thunder Dragon). The name was derived from a legend- Tsangpa Gyare Yeshe Dorji, a 12th century saint of the Kargyupa sect of Mahayana Buddhism in its a tantric form, was consecrating a new monastery when he heard thunder in the sky. As popular belief associated thunder with the voice of the dragon (Druk), he took this to be an omen and changed the name of his sect to Drukpa Kargyupa. As has been seen, it was this sect that ultimately became the State Religion of Bhutan and gave its name to the country.

Today, Bhutan is the only nation in the world where Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism is practiced as the State Religion. From the time when Guru Padmasambhava came to Bhutan Buddhism has wielded a profound influence both on the people's way of life as well as on the growth of the country's religion cultural and traditional customs. The presence of religion is evident in every facet of Bhutanese life and Buddhist values which form the basis of Bhutanese society are inculcated in the younger generations from their formative years.

 to be updated!!!


Nyingma Bhddhism in Bhutan- NYINGMA HISTORY

Second Buddha- Guru Rinpoche, Head of Nyingma Lineage Holders
Nyingma Buddhism account in Bhutan:
Buddhism originally finds its root in India and it is generally divided into two great schools: the Mahayana meaning Greater Vehicle and Hinayana meaning Lesser Vehicle. These days Hinayana is more popularly known as Theravada.
The Sanskrit word Yana meaning vehicle, suggests a path which leads sentient beings to higher states depending on their deeds. Bhutan is the only independent Mahayana country in the world today. Buddhism set its foot in the country in the 7th century when A.D, when the first two temples of Kyichu in Paro and Jampa in Bumthang were built in the first half of the 7th Century by Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo.
However, the major growth of Buddhism started only in the 8th Century with the visit of Indian saint, Padmasambhava, popularly known as Guru Rinpoche in Bhutan. His teachings laid the foundation for one of the most important and unifying forces in the development of Bhutan’s unique culture and tradition. Now the country’s religion has become its way of life.
From the 13th century onwards, many religious masters came to Bhutan from Tibet and spread the teachings of their schools such as Sakyapa, Drukpa Kagyudpa, Chagzampa, Kathogpa and Nyingmapa. Many of these schools were able to establish only small temples and in the course of time merged with other schools. Today, Drukpa Kagyudpa and Nyingmapa are the two most prominent schools in Bhutan.
The introduction of Buddhism occurred in the seventh century A.D., when Tibetan king Srongtsen Gampo (reigned A.D. 627-49), a convert to Buddhism, ordered the construction of two Buddhist temples, at Bumthang in central Bhutan and at Kyichu in the Paro Valley. This had laid foundation of Bhudha dharma in Bhutan.
In A.D. 747, a Buddhist saint, Padmasambhava (known in Bhutan as Guru Rinpoche and sometimes referred to as the Second Buddha), came to Bhutan from India at the invitation of one of the numerous local kings. After reportedly subduing eight classes of demons and converting the king, Guru Rinpoche moved on to Tibet. Upon his return from Tibet, he oversaw the construction of new monasteries in the Paro Valley and set up his headquarters in Bumthang
According to tradition, he founded the Nyingmapa sect - also known as the "old sect" or Red Hat sect - of Mahayana Buddhism, which became for a time the dominant religion of Bhutan. Guru Rinpoche plays a great historical and religious role as the national patron saint who revealed the tantras - manuals describing forms of devotion to natural energy - to Bhutan.
After Guru Rinpoche, his Nyingma teachings were preserved and spread by his reincarnations and treasures revealers in Bhutan. Since then, many sub-sect of Nyingma teachings were flourished in Bhutan, such as Longchen Nyingthig, teaching of Kunkhyen Longchen Ramjam, Pedling, the revealed treasures of Terton Pema Lingpa, Dorling, the revealed treasure teaching of Terton Dorji Lingpa, Dudjom terser teaching, discovered teachings of Dudjom Rinpoche, Jangter teachings of Namkhia Nyingpo Rinpoche and other holders of treasures teachings are dominant in Bhutan today.
Khenlop Chesum- Khenpo, Guru and King

Brief Account of Nyingma tradition of Buddhism:
The Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism traces its origin to the Indian adept, Guru Padmasambhava, who came to Tibet in 817 C.E. at the invitation of King Trisong Deutsan (742-797) in order to subdue the evil forces then impeding the spread of Buddhism. Guru Rinpochey, as he is popularly known, bound all evil spirits by oath and transformed them into forces compatible with the spread of Buddhism. In collaboration with the great Bodhisattva Abbot Shantarakshita, Guru Rinpochey then built Samyey monastery, which became a principal centre of learning and the site where many of the texts that would make up Tibet's vast Buddhist literature were first translated into Tibetan.
Guru Rinpochey also gave widespread teachings from the highest classes of tantra and in particular to his twenty-five principal disciples. These first Tibetan adepts are renowned for their spiritual accomplishments, for example, Namkhai Nyingpo for his feat of travelling on beams of light, Khandro Yeshe Tsogyal for reviving the dead, Vairochana for his intuition, Nanam Yeshe for soaring in the sky, Kawa Peltseg for reading others thought and Jnana Kumara for his miraculous powers.

Contemporary Indian masters Vimalamitra, Buddhaguhya, Shantipa and the tantric adept, Dharmakirti, also came to Tibet and spread tantric teachings. So, although the study of logic and Buddhist philosophy was not yet prevalent, the practice of tantra in extreme secrecy was much favoured. Even the work of translating such esoteric texts as Kun-byed rgyal-po, mDo-dgougs-'dus and the Mahamaya cycle of teachings by Vairochana, Nyag Jnana Kumara, Nubchen Sangye Yeshe and others, was carried out In great secrecy.
Seeing the disciples unripe and the time inappropriate for many of the other teachings he had to reveal, Guru Padmasambhava hid hundreds of Treasures in the forms of scriptures, images and ritual articles, in air, Cave Mountains, river and lands, with instructions for their revelation for the benefit of future generations. Subsequently, more than one hundred masters have revealed these Treasures and taught them to their disciples. So, besides the tantric teachings, it is these lineages of revealed teachings combined with the Great Completion or Dzogchen doctrine taught and disseminated successively by Garab Dorji, Shri Simha, Guru Rinpoche, Jnana Sutra, Vimala Mitra, which are distinguished In Tibet as Nyingma doctrine
The Nyingma tradition divides the entire Buddhist teachings into Nine Vehicles: the Three Common Vehicles comprising the Hearer, Solitary Realizer, and Bodhisattva vehicles dealing with those categories of teachings included in the sutras taught by Buddha Shakyamuni; the Three Outer Tantras consisting of Kriya Tantra which places greater emphasis on practicing proper external behavior, physical and verbal conduct aimed at purification and simple visualization practice; Upa Tantra which lays more emphasis on developing both external and internal faculties with the goal of achieving a deeper affinity with the meditational deity; and Yoga Tantra, which I mainly aimed at developing the strength of inner psychophysical vitality as taught by Vajrasattva. Finally, the Three Innermost Tantras comprising Mahayoga, primarily emphasising the Generation Stage practice in which the ordinary level of perception and attachment are eliminated through sacred vision and divine pride; the Annuyoga, emphasising Completion Stage practice in which the vajra body is used as a serviceable means to actualize primordial awareness and the Atiyoga, in which all emphasis is directed towards full activation of the generation and completion stage practices, enabling the yogi to transcend all ordinary time, activity and experience, as taught by Samantabhadra Buddha. The first six of these nine vehicles are common to all schools of Tibetan Buddhism, whereas the last three, the Innermost Tantras, are exclusive to the Nyingma tradition.

Due to the slightly different approaches of various lineages in presenting Dzogchen three sub-schools have developed: The Mind School (Sems-sde) is attributed to Shrisimha and Vairochana's lineage, the Centredness School (kLong-sde) is attributed to Longde Dorje Zampa, and Shrisimha and Vairochana's lineage, whereas the Quintessential Instruction School (Man-ngag-sde) is attributed directly to Guru Padmasambhava's lineage of the Heart's Drop (sNying-thig) cycle of teachings and practice. Although Dzogchen is the unique feature of Nyingma practice, even among the lay followers the practice of reciting Guru Rinpoche's prayers, observing the 10th and 25th of every lunar month as a day for feast offerings, and even retiring into retreat for three years and three months individually or in company are common.
According to the history of the origin of tantras there are three lineages: The Lineage of Buddha's Intention, which refers to the teachings of the Truth Body originating from the primordial Buddha Samantabhadra, who is said to have taught tantras to an assembly of completely enlightened beings emanated from the Truth Body itself. Therefore, this level of teaching is considered as being completely beyond the reach of ordinary human beings. The Lineage of the Knowledge Holders corresponds to the teachings of the Enjoyment Body originating from Vajrasattva and Vajrapani, whose human lineage begins with Garab Dorje of the Ögyan Dakini land. From him the lineage passed to Manjushrimitra, Shrisimha and then to Guru Rinpoche, Jnanasutra, Vimalamitra and Vairochana who disseminated it in Tibet. Lastly, the Human Whispered Lineage corresponds to the teachings of the Emanation Body, originating from the Five Buddha Families. They were passed on to Shrisimha, who transmitted them to Guru Rinpoche, who in giving them to Vimalamitra started the lineage which has continued in Tibet until the present day.
This last mode of transmission is most commonly employed for ordinary people. However, the former two lineages may still exist amongst the highly realized Dzogchen masters.

There is yet another tradition which enumerates six lineages for the origin of the tantras by adding: the Commissioned Instruction Lineage (bK'a-babs lung-bstan-gyi-btgyud-pa), the Treasure Doctrine Lineage of the Fortunate One's (Las-'phrn gter-gyi-brgyud- pa) and the Lineage of Trustees Established through Prayers (sMon-lam gtad-rgya'i-brgyud-pa).

The Nyingma tantric literature and its transmission are classified into three groups: the Oral, Treasures, and Visions. These three may be further subsumed under two categories: the Oral comprising primarily the tantras and associated texts belonging to the cycle of Mahayoga tantras; the root and explanatory tantra belonging to the cycle of Annuyoga tantras; and finally, the Atiyoga or Dzogchen cycle of tantras.
The Treasure transmission comprises the innumerable treasure texts revealed by subsequent Treasure Masters, which were hidden by Guru Rinpoche himself in 9th century as well as numerous teachings later revealed through enlightened minds and meditative visions of Nyingma masters. Hundreds of masters have appeared who have revealed treasures. Among them, Nyangral Nyima Özer (1124-92), Guru Chowang (1212-70), Dorje Lingpa (1346-1405), Padma Lingpa (b.1405) and Jamyang Khyentse (1820-1892) are renowned as the Five Kings of the Treasure Masters. Their revealed treasures concern, among others, the cycle of teachings and meditations related to Avalokiteshvara, Guru Rinpoche's sadhanas, the Dzogchen teachings, the Ka-gyey cycle of teachings, the Vajrakila or Phurba cycle of teachings, medicine and prophecies.
Hence, in addition to the standard Mahayana Buddhist canon of the Kangyur and Tangyur, many further teachings may be found in the Collection of a Hundred Thousand Nyingma Tantras, compiled in thirteenth century by Tertön Ratna Lingpa (1403-1473) and organized by Kunkhyen Longchen Ramjampa (1308-1363). Besides this, numerous works such as the sixty volumes of the Rinchen Terdzod compiled by Kongtrul Yonten Gyatso (1813-1899) and the writings of Rongzom, Dodrupchen, Paltrul, Mipham and many others have added to the rich collection of Nyingma literature. The oldest Nyingma institution is Samyey temple completed in 810 C.F. by Shantarakshita and Guru Padmasambhava under the patronage of King Trisong Deutsan. Subsequently, no big monasteries were built until the 12th century, when Nechung Monastery was built in Central Tibet by Chokpa Jangchub Palden and Kathok Monastery was founded in Kham by Ka Dampa Desheg (1112-92) in 1159. This is an indication that unlike the other Buddhist traditions the Nyingmapa did not become institutionalized until much later in their history.
However, later on in Tibet starting from the 15th century onwards, great monastic universities were built, such as Mindroling, founded in 1676 by Rigzin Terdag Lingpa, otherwise known as Minling Terchen Gyurmed Dorje (1646-1714) and Dorje Drag founded in 1659 by Rigzin Ngagi Wangpo in central Tibet; and Palyul established by Rigzin Kunsang Sherab in 1665; Dzogchen built by Dzogchen Pema Rigzin in 1685 and Zhechen established by Zhechen Rabjampa in 1735, all in Kham province. Dodrupchen and Darthang monasteries were established in Amdo.
Principal monastic institutions re-established in exile, after occupation of Tibet  are Thekchok Namdrol Shedrub Dargye Ling, in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, Ngedon Gatsal Ling, in Clementown, Dehradun; Palyul Chokhor Ling and E-Vam Gyurmed Ling in Bir, and Nechung Drayang Ling at Dharamsala, and Thubten E-vam Dorjey Drag at Shimla in Himachal Pradesh, India.

The Nyingma tradition is presently headed by, Taglung Tsetrul Rinpochey who succeeds the line of vagra president of Nyingma lineage. The passed Nyingma heads include, Dudjom Rinpoche, Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, Penor Rinpoche, Minling Trichen Rinpoche, Trulzhig Rinpochey, and Dodrupchen and Jadrel Rinpoches are some of the living Nyingma spiritual masters.

To be updated!!!!